_________________________Shifting border

__Wars  revolts,,, shifting allieances

air  and ground

loss of life

body limbs
sanded to death

__________The Libyan Miscalcuation

The Success of Revolutions That Do Not Succeed


Qaddafi certainly provided transfer payments to the Libyan population with the oil

wealth, so that Libya's people enjoy high human development indicators (the past ten

years, however, have seen a decline in these payments). But such payments are no substitute for social and political dignity, as the emirs of the Gulf are finding amongst

their restive populations. Elections are no panacea, but they set a new foundation.

More will be demanded. New forms of popular engagement, new public spaces, new democratic dreams that far exceed the rancid constraints of neo-liberalism.

The outcome in Libya is not clear-cut. Africom's General Carter Ham now says that even though U. S. ground troops would not be an ideal situation in Libya, it might be the only way to help the rebels. 

A prolonged military conflict of this kind would benefit the counter-revolution, since it would further weaken the hand of those who seek a political path forward, to build on the new social horizons created by the uprisings. 

Faced with the stalemate, those who only know war want more war.

 Others seek a ceasefire, negotiations and pathways to build on what have been achieved, which is considerable.

The Arab lands will not be the same again.

Vijay Prashad is the George and Martha Kellner Chair of South Asian History and Director of International Studies at Trinity College, Hartford, CT His most recent book, The Darker Nations: A People's History of the Third World, won the Muzaffar Ahmad Book Prize for 2009. The Swedish and French editions are just out.